Electricity from Generators to Loads

Electricity makes our life comfortable and easier. We use electricity more and more every year and off course we need it in places far from the generation power plants places. So in most cases electricity must move for along distances from one place to another before it will be used and the same time there are a standards present in the loads places that describe the electricity specifications that will operate our machines and appliances. 
Let’s trace the path of electricity from a generation power plant to the load (a lamp or other appliance) present in your house:
First, the electricity is generated at power generation plants and then it moves through conductors to power transformers that will steps up the electricity voltage (called step up transformers) to a standard known level and then the electricity is transmitted throw of transmission lines network which called "electric grid" .These transmission lines consist of huge tower lines that you can see along the highway and all transmission lines are connected together.
The reason that makes us step up the voltage before transmission is to reduce electricity losses in the conductors.
Second, near to cities that comprise the electrical loads there will be a step down transformers located in substations (contain transformers + switches + another electrical equipment's) at the end of the transmission lines referred above, this step down transformers reduce the voltage value to another standard level.
Third, this reduced voltage electricity is then carried by distribution lines that deliver the electricity to another step down transformers, present in the center of the cities and villages at the vicinity of the customers electrical loads and usually these step down transformers are called distribution transformers and they sound as a large gray metal box mounted on an electric pole. Distribution lines can be overhead lines or underground cables.
Finally, this reduced voltage electricity out from the distribution transformers feed your electrical loads in your house like lamps and other equipment's as the generated reduced voltage is suitable to operate them according to the standards and to your local regulation.
The electricity enters your house through a three-wire cable, controlled by
a circuit breaker or a fuse to feed your outlets and wall switches in your house and off course the utility company puts an electric meter beside this circuit breaker or fuse to measure how much electricity you will use every month.

Post a Comment